Theories of Intelligence
Theories Define Intelligence Theories of intelligence help define intelligence in a measurable way. In 1983,…
The Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory may not something be that you have heard before, but Howard Gardner is the pioneer of studying multiple intelligences and his work on this theory has made a significant impact on the many practices we use today in the academe. Born in 1943 in Pennsylvania, Howard Earl Gardner is a renowned psychologist and a graduate of Harvard University. Coined as Gardner Multiple Intelligences, together we will explore the many facets of the human intelligence according to this genius.
In the old days, people believed that intelligence was a single entity. Scholars said that intelligence is inherited and that human beings who were not blessed with it should make do with what nature bestowed upon them. One old theory also said that the human brain is also comparable to an empty sheet of canvas from which a painter can paint an image. In terms of intelligence, the blank mind may be trained to a certain degree if exposed to the right environment. This means that you may not be born of intelligent parents but if you were exposed to intelligent people who mentored you, you can be intelligent.
The Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory challenged all of these, including the work of Piaget. He contested that there are many forms of intelligences and that each person, to some degree, will manifest these kinds of intelligences. It was Gardner who challenged the idea that intelligence was only determined in one form. It was Gardner who said that intelligence cannot be measured in a single IQ test. Essentially, Gardner claimed that intelligence is not a single entity and that any child can learn these different forms of intelligences.
To Gardner, intelligence is viewed differently. Maybe you already know this but for the record, he said that intelligence is a being’s capacity or ability to solve an issue or a problem or design, or create, something that is of value. Essentially, there are eight pillars of principles where Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory is based. In the course of time, Gardner was able to reduce his theory to seven types of intelligences. Two of these are used in the academic world, in schools, another three are used in art, and the other two are called personal intelligences. Below you will find the complete list of the Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory.
This type of intelligence deals with both written and spoken language. This refers to your ability to learn multiple languages, either spoken or written. You see, not all individuals have the ability to learn two languages. This also refers to a person’ ability to express himself in poetry, oration, and rhetoric.
The second in the Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory is logical-mathematical intelligence. This refers to a person’s ability to recognize and solve problems. These problems do not necessarily have to be mathematical in nature. If you can use reason and deduce or extract solutions or conclusions in a logical manner, then it is said you have high logical intelligence.
This type of intelligence refers to a person’s ability to compose, perform, and understand musical patterns. Surely you like music and you can appreciate it. But creating music from scratch requires this type of intelligence.
Also called bodily intelligence, this requires a tremendously great skill in using the body, the physical body, to solve problems. A great example, perhaps, are gymnasts. This also entails that a person must have the ability to coordinate his thoughts into physical movements and this requires muscle and mental coordination. Ballet dancers and ice skaters are also great examples of individuals who have high kinesthetic intelligence.
This intelligence deals mostly with a person’s ability to recognize his position relative to his environment. You can see this mostly in drivers and pilots.
In the Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory, interpersonal intelligence is said to be high if the person can motivate and understand other individuals around him. If you are very patient and you can motivate people, this allows you to work seamlessly with them. Interpersonal intelligence is likely very high if you are a politician, a religious leader, or a counselor.
The last in the list of Gardner Multiple Intelligences theory is intrapersonal intelligence, which is a characteristic displayed mostly by people who have the ability to understand their own selves. If you can understand your motivations and set your priorities straight, this kind of intelligence will help you live your life better and make yourself more effective in managing your own direction.